Risk Management Policies In Financial Services: Hedge Funds

Many financial services make use of a well-structured risk management policy to manage their day-to-day exposure to risk, including exclusive investment entities such as hedge funds. For many years hedge funds were considered the high-stakes bad boys of the investing world; an image that the industry despised and rejected in the public eye, yet celebrated behind the closed doors of their high-rise offices and their swanky exclusive nightclubs. Over the past 36 months the hedge fund community has stepped up their efforts to shed the negativity and weariness that is often associated with them. Of course in some ways this “risky market gambler” perception was always unfounded, especially considering hedge funds use complex strategies and investment vehicles to hedge away systemic and market risk.Due to their size and unique capital structure, hedge funds were previously allowed to operate outside the stringent oversight of investment regulators, but this has changed over the past decade. While hedge funds continue to abstain from using the comprehensive risk management ‘best-practices’ of other financial services such as banks and large fund managers, they have certainly increased their use of risk management policies. These processes have evolved to monitor not only how their range of investments mitigate inherent market risk for their investors, but also how they conduct their business in general.The organizational risk philosophy at any particular hedge fund typically reflects the interest-level and commitment of that fund’s top traders and officials. The greater these managers believe in not chasing greater return at the expense of risk compliance, the stronger the fund’s risk policy is embedded throughout the entire fund’s other personnel. Many hedge funds now employ a Chief Risk Officer and have doubled their expenditures on risk management processes and risk compliance. They are increasingly seeking individuals who have obtained at least one risk management certification, focusing on credit and financial risk. These changes are the result of not only clearer minds within the hedge fund management community, but also from changing investor expectations. While hedge fund have always used complex quantitative risk management models to quell investor fears, most managers will tell you that in the past few investors know, or cared to know, how they worked. While this sentiment has not dramatically changed during these past few months, there are changing expectations from investors, especially large institutional money managers, in regards to transparency, risk analysis processes, and how business is conducted. Fund managers typically benefit from long investment time-horizons and leeway from their investors, but even traditionally ‘sticky’ investors are demonstrating a willingness to pull assets out of hedge funds if managers do not comply with the changing risk expectations.As a consequence of the 2008 financial upheaval the fund community has witnesses the creation of a series of private oversight groups, such as the ‘Hedge Fund Standards Board’. These self-regulatory bodies are creating industry benchmarks and best-practices in risk management, and from which the community can develop their own risk policies.Hedge funds of all sizes have developed and incorporated risk management policies into their operational and trading strategies. These processes include limits on acceptable losses per trader, controls and limits on the types of investments made, and formal communication and internal policing procedures. These funds offer limited transparency on how they conduct business to anyone outside their inner circle of investors, and thus individual firms are expected to internally police themselves. An predominant precursor of risk in this business is the overuse of leverage, and risk management in this area has become a hot-button issue within the fund community. Many fund managers use borrowed money (funds borrowed against the assets provided by their investors) to maximize the return on their positions, and achieve the above-market gains the industry is famous for. However, this practice leaves the firm and its investors assets exposed to unforeseen market risks. The majority of funds now have risk assessment policies in place that monitor their liabilities-to-assets ratios and prevent individual traders from exceeding leverage limits.Due diligence in many aspects of the hedge fund business has increased since the 2008 financial crisis. Fund managers are now acutely mindful of their brokerage trading connections, as well as the structure of asset-custody with transaction partners. Since the 2008 financial crisis hedge funds have learned the hard way that counter-party risks certainly do exist in the financial services sector, and the domino effect resulting from the collapse of Lehman Brothers demonstrated that even the best and brightest can be left exposed.

Real Estate Agent In Chicago – Helping You Purchase Your New Home

Buying a home can be very stressful, but it can be a very exciting experience with the right real estate in Chicago. Real estate agent in Chicago specializes in real estate in Chicago. You can take advantage of the knowledge of real estate agent in Chicago as they use their superb negotiation skills.A realtor’s commission is often paid by the seller, meaning that the services they offer will have no cost to you. With the advancement of technology a lot of real estate listing for the Chicago area can be found on the internet. With thorough research you can easily find the best real estate agents in Chicago.For many people, buying a home is a large step in life and can even be more complicated than it looks. Real estate agents in Chicago are interested in helping you. They provide a detailed Chicago comparative real estate market analysis to help determine the home’s purchase price. They also assist with paperwork to purchase the home such as contracts, inspections, and seller disclosures. They can even recommend you to attorneys, inspectors, and lenders that are available to help you make an easy home buying transaction.When you are ready to purchase a home in Chicago a great real estate agent can help you with the all the options. Once you tell them what you want in a home they can find the available homes that have those amenities. They will go through MLS listings daily to find the homes you might like to visit.They will also help you negotiate terms of the contract and create the most comprehensive Comparative Market Analysis for you to understand the real value of the house. They also process and coordinate paperwork such as your purchase agreement, disclosures, home inspections, home warranty protection plans, escrow instructions and more and assist you with finding a lender that will help you qualify for a home loan.A Chicago real estate agent will help you hire a real estate attorney, inspector and home warranty company. They can also guide you through the appraisal and negotiating aspects of the deal and offer professional marketing for y our property. Purchasing a home is quite a complicated process. Locate a property in Chicago that interests you and call a real estate agent and we will serve you and guide you through the deal.
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Continuing Education for Nurses

The following article relates not only to nurses but also to those aspiring to enter the noble profession of nursing. We hope you will get some insight into this field.Although we have used the female reference for nurses throughout this article (“she”, “her”), this is done purely for convenience and in no way reflects the gender status of nurses in today’s society.Most people assume that once a nurse has completed her education and has become registered, that is the “end” and that no more learning or education is required. This couldn’t be further from the truth. There’s more to nursing then just tending and looking after patients.It is highly critical that a nurse maintain and continue her ongoing education and is kept current on her profession. This is an integral part of maintaining her registration.A nurse’s life in the 21st century is extremely fast paced. There are medical advances in precedures almost on a daily basis and it is essential that a nurse is kept abreast and is at the forefront of these improvements. This requires a high level of time management and dedication to improve oneself in addition to spending long hours in clinics and hospitals. Of course this is much easier said than done.It is in the best interests of a good hospital to provide everything needed for nurses to continue their education. A good hospital will also more than likely pay for the education of their nurses. A lack of funds should not be a deterrent to a nurse continuing her education.Many nurses regularly subscribe to nursing periodicals and magazines to keep up to date with their ongoing education.. Nurses are encouraged to go through the relavent published journals on a regular basis.Of course let’s not forget that just as important to success is the keeping of portfolios and timely documentation detailing all the training and education received throughout the nursing career. This written journal also serves as a method of organizing in an orderly manner, all the continuing education undertaken.Admittedly, there exists a challenge with regards to access to this education for nurses, namely the expense, since nursing is still not considered to be among the better paid professions. This challenge to accessibility can perhaps be met by employers coming forward and funding the continuing education of registered nurses.Please be sure to check out the many additional resources available on this topic online.